The putative role of the endocannabinoid system and the effects of use in male and female sexual
functioning are summarized. The influence of intake on sexual behavior and arousability appear to
be dose-dependent in both men and women, although women are far more consistent in reporting
facilitatory effects. Furthermore, evidence from nonhuman species indicate somewhat more beneficial than
debilitating effects of cannabinoids on female sexual proceptivity and receptivity while suggesting
predominantly detrimental effects on male sexual motivation and erectile functioning. Data from human
and nonhuman species converge on the ephemeral nature of -induced testosterone decline. However, it
is clear that cannabinoid-induced inhibition of male sexual behavior is independent of concurrent declines in
testosterone levels. Investigations also reveal a suppression of gonadotropin release by cannabinoids across
various species. Historical milestones and promising future directions in the area of cannabinoid and
sexuality research are also outlined in this review.